Archive for November, 2015
Have you ever been asked about the history of a certain data? Like, who entered it and when? If you have, and you couldn’t figure out the answer, then you probably need some kind of auditing in place. There is a bunch of commercial (and free) products out there, most of them working with various data sources, not just Informix, some are only software solutions, other could be hardware-software combos. There’s one of IBM’s products out there aimed for this purpose, quite noticeable lately. If you know about it, then you’re probably already using it, or will use it at some point.
But what if you don’t need or can’t afford an expensive high tech solution to keep an eye on just a few tables? Or even an entire database. Well, luckily for us, Informix itself also offers audit feature, free of charge. On the second thought, maybe not.
Here’s the thing. Informix comes with auditing facility and it’s actually quite good. It covers various events it can keep track of (as much as 161 in version 12.10), some of which should be really enabled on every production system, if nothing else, for logging purposes. It also implements role separation, very important feature if you need to be confident that no one has tampered with your audit trail. It also enables you to create masks, or profiles, so you can audit different things for different types of users.
Unfortunately, most of the time, it can’t help you answer the question about the history of the data. When it comes to row level auditing, it’s mostly useless. There are four events which relate to row level auditing and could be turned on: INRW – insert row, UPRW – update row, DLRW – delete row and RDRW – read row. All things considering row level auditing on a live system should be used with utter caution, as these could produce enormous amounts of audit trails in a short time, especially the latter, as it will write one row in an audit trail file for each row read by the user. Just think of what would happen if a user would carelessly execute select statement without criteria.
At first, there was no way to select the tables which will be audited this way, so you either had to have INRW, UPRW and/or DLRW turned on for all tables or not. As this wasn’t very useful, it was enhanced soon enough. Now there’s a possibility to say which table gets to be audited this way, if some of these four events are turned on and the ADTROWS parameter is set to 1. This is done via the WITH AUDIT part of the CREATE TABLE statement:
CREATE TABLE example (a int, b int ...) WITH AUDIT;
If the table is already created, row level auditing for it could be added
ALTER TABLE example ADD AUDIT;
ALTER TABLE example DROP AUDIT;
at any time.
And now for the unfortunate part. The audit trail is written in the audit files. Every audit trail entry has the same structure, as explained here (LINK). While this format is useful or sufficient for some events, that is not the case with the row level events. For each of the row level events, only basic info is logged – tabid, partno and rowid. In the case of an update event, there are two rowids, an old and a new one. So basically, there is no way to figure out what was the value of a field before the update, or even which field changed. After the row was deleted, there is no way to find out what data it contained. The only way to know is to dig through the logical logs, as I previously explained, but that’s no way data history should be explored.
Bottom line, if you need to know your data history (inserts, updates and deletes), you should either acquire a tool which will help you with that, or you can try and set something up on your own. So here comes the happy ending. There are several way to do this, I’m showing the one with the triggers and shadow tables. The idea is to have a shadow table for each table you’re auditing, which has the same set of fields, and some extra fields, like username, operation performed on that row and a timestamp. Additionally, a set of triggers on the original table is needed, which will ensure the shadow table is filled. Informix can have multiple triggers on a single event since version 10.00 or so, so this is not a problem. If you’re thinking about implementation, there more good news – I’ve written and shared the code which will do that for you (a view and couple of procedures, find it here). All you need to do is to call the main procedure, provide the table name, dbspace name and the extent size of the shadow table, like this:
EXECUTE PROCEDURE createAuditForTable('exams, 'audit_dbs', 128);
It will create a shadow table in a designated dbspace, and name it like the original table, but with _ at the beginning. It will also create three triggers, with _ at the beginning of its name, followed by the table name and the operation name at the end, so it could be identified more easily (in this example, shadow table will be _exams and triggers will be named _examsinsert, _examsupdate, _examsdelete). These triggers will fire on each insert, update or delete operation on the original table and write actual row data, operation performed, user who performed it (USER variable) and the time of the operation (CURRENT variable) in the shadow table. Actual row is considered to be new row (in the for each row trigger) in the case of insert or update operation, and the old row in the case of a delete operation.
So from this moment on, you just have to query the shadow table in order to get the history of the original table. If the delete occurs, there is a whole row stored in the shadow table that can be seen. If the update occurred, you can find the previous row with the same primary key to compare the differences. Once you decide that no more audit is necessary on a table, simply drop the shadow table and these triggers.
Obviously, there is a storage space required for this, but so is for every other type of auditing, except this one is managed inside the database. It’s easy to govern and explore it, only SQL interface is needed.
There are security issues at place here, since no real role separation can be implemented. Triggers could be disabled or dropped, shadow tables with audit trail could be tampered with. Some problems could be solved by eliminating users with elevated permissions, like resource or DBA, and part of it could be solved by storing or moving the shadow tables to another server. But still, database system administrator (DBSA, i.e. informix user) can override all of this. So if you need to be in compliance with some kind of regulation, this type of auditing is not for you.
Otherwise, if you need to know your data history from an end-user point of view, this simple auditing can help you. All the code needed could be found here, it’s all open sourced via the GNU GPL v3 license. Feel free to use it and extend it. After noting that I cannot be held responsible if anything goes wrong :), just put it in your database, end execute the procedure with the correct arguments – tables you want audited.