If your database serves an information system, there is a pretty good chance that system generates some written documents to end users – predefined reports or simply letters or some kind of official documents to be printed. In the case of relatively simple documents, i.e. not complicated multi-level detailed reports, application has to generate it using a template or some other meta-description of it, and fill it with a case-specific data. If there is a need to generate same documents from different apps (e.g. a web app and a desktop app), a solution to generate it and serve it right from the database might come in handy.
There are several ways to do this, but probably the simplest is to call the stored procedure (or a function) with the right parameters, which will return the document. Document templates which will be used should be stored somewhere in the database. The document generation function takes the appropriate template, searches for predefined tokens and replaces them with the correct data, depending on the input parameters. That’s why the template needs to be in some simple text format, perhaps RTF (rich text format) which allows neat formatting, could be prepared in most of the WYSIWYG text editors, can contain pictures and other advanced formatting stuff, and yet could be viewed as a plain text file, so tokens could be found and replaced easily.
Tokens should be predefined, agreed upon, and unique in a way that they could never be a part of a normal text. Some examples of tokens might be: REPLACEME_CURRENT_DATE, ##CUSTOMER_NAME## or %customer.id.number%. I suggest to define a single notation and stick to it. Just make sure the token format does not interfere with the special characters your chosen document format uses. After this, templates should be prepared in any rich text editor, like LibreOffice Writer or MS Word and stored in a database table with templates. Next, the document generating function has to be written. Depending on the size of the template, you might need to use some character data types like CLOB or LONGLVARCHAR (a new, still undocumented type), which make things more complicated. Main reason for this is the REPLACE function which doesn’t support bigger character types. Since we want to replace all tokens of the same kind in the document at once, we may store the file on the server, iterate through all the token types, replace them with proper values (using sed, for example), pull it back from the file system and return it to the user. Here is the outline of the function which might do that:
CREATE FUNCTION generateDocument ( document_id INT, additional parameters...) RETURNING CLOB;
-- define the variables
-- get the appropriate template from the table -- and store it on the file system using LOTOFILE function
-- fetch the values which will replace tokens in the template
FOR token IN (list of tokens)
-- replace each token in the file using SYSTEM 'sed...'
-- pull the file from the file system using -- FILETOCLOB and return it
This solution requires a smart blob space and file system privileges for the user executing it, but no other special demands exist. If you’re a fan of datablades, there is also a possibility of using a string manipulating blade functions which would make the replacements without meddling into a file system and leave the file system out.
Have you ever been asked about the history of a certain data? Like, who entered it and when? If you have, and you couldn’t figure out the answer, then you probably need some kind of auditing in place. There is a bunch of commercial (and free) products out there, most of them working with various data sources, not just Informix, some are only software solutions, other could be hardware-software combos. There’s one of IBM’s products out there aimed for this purpose, quite noticeable lately. If you know about it, then you’re probably already using it, or will use it at some point.
But what if you don’t need or can’t afford an expensive high tech solution to keep an eye on just a few tables? Or even an entire database. Well, luckily for us, Informix itself also offers audit feature, free of charge. On the second thought, maybe not.
Here’s the thing. Informix comes with auditing facility and it’s actually quite good. It covers various events it can keep track of (as much as 161 in version 12.10), some of which should be really enabled on every production system, if nothing else, for logging purposes. It also implements role separation, very important feature if you need to be confident that no one has tampered with your audit trail. It also enables you to create masks, or profiles, so you can audit different things for different types of users.
Unfortunately, most of the time, it can’t help you answer the question about the history of the data. When it comes to row level auditing, it’s mostly useless. There are four events which relate to row level auditing and could be turned on: INRW – insert row, UPRW – update row, DLRW – delete row and RDRW – read row. All things considering row level auditing on a live system should be used with utter caution, as these could produce enormous amounts of audit trails in a short time, especially the latter, as it will write one row in an audit trail file for each row read by the user. Just think of what would happen if a user would carelessly execute select statement without criteria.
At first, there was no way to select the tables which will be audited this way, so you either had to have INRW, UPRW and/or DLRW turned on for all tables or not. As this wasn’t very useful, it was enhanced soon enough. Now there’s a possibility to say which table gets to be audited this way, if some of these four events are turned on and the ADTROWS parameter is set to 1. This is done via the WITH AUDIT part of the CREATE TABLE statement:
CREATE TABLE example (a int, b int ...) WITH AUDIT;
If the table is already created, row level auditing for it could be added
ALTER TABLE example ADD AUDIT;
ALTER TABLE example DROP AUDIT;
at any time.
And now for the unfortunate part. The audit trail is written in the audit files. Every audit trail entry has the same structure, as explained here (LINK). While this format is useful or sufficient for some events, that is not the case with the row level events. For each of the row level events, only basic info is logged – tabid, partno and rowid. In the case of an update event, there are two rowids, an old and a new one. So basically, there is no way to figure out what was the value of a field before the update, or even which field changed. After the row was deleted, there is no way to find out what data it contained. The only way to know is to dig through the logical logs, as I previously explained, but that’s no way data history should be explored.
Bottom line, if you need to know your data history (inserts, updates and deletes), you should either acquire a tool which will help you with that, or you can try and set something up on your own. So here comes the happy ending. There are several way to do this, I’m showing the one with the triggers and shadow tables. The idea is to have a shadow table for each table you’re auditing, which has the same set of fields, and some extra fields, like username, operation performed on that row and a timestamp. Additionally, a set of triggers on the original table is needed, which will ensure the shadow table is filled. Informix can have multiple triggers on a single event since version 10.00 or so, so this is not a problem. If you’re thinking about implementation, there more good news – I’ve written and shared the code which will do that for you (a view and couple of procedures, find it here). All you need to do is to call the main procedure, provide the table name, dbspace name and the extent size of the shadow table, like this:
EXECUTE PROCEDURE createAuditForTable('exams, 'audit_dbs', 128);
It will create a shadow table in a designated dbspace, and name it like the original table, but with _ at the beginning. It will also create three triggers, with _ at the beginning of its name, followed by the table name and the operation name at the end, so it could be identified more easily (in this example, shadow table will be _exams and triggers will be named _examsinsert, _examsupdate, _examsdelete). These triggers will fire on each insert, update or delete operation on the original table and write actual row data, operation performed, user who performed it (USER variable) and the time of the operation (CURRENT variable) in the shadow table. Actual row is considered to be new row (in the for each row trigger) in the case of insert or update operation, and the old row in the case of a delete operation.
So from this moment on, you just have to query the shadow table in order to get the history of the original table. If the delete occurs, there is a whole row stored in the shadow table that can be seen. If the update occurred, you can find the previous row with the same primary key to compare the differences. Once you decide that no more audit is necessary on a table, simply drop the shadow table and these triggers.
Obviously, there is a storage space required for this, but so is for every other type of auditing, except this one is managed inside the database. It’s easy to govern and explore it, only SQL interface is needed.
There are security issues at place here, since no real role separation can be implemented. Triggers could be disabled or dropped, shadow tables with audit trail could be tampered with. Some problems could be solved by eliminating users with elevated permissions, like resource or DBA, and part of it could be solved by storing or moving the shadow tables to another server. But still, database system administrator (DBSA, i.e. informix user) can override all of this. So if you need to be in compliance with some kind of regulation, this type of auditing is not for you.
Otherwise, if you need to know your data history from an end-user point of view, this simple auditing can help you. All the code needed could be found here, it’s all open sourced via the GNU GPL v3 license. Feel free to use it and extend it. After noting that I cannot be held responsible if anything goes wrong :), just put it in your database, end execute the procedure with the correct arguments – tables you want audited.
Google has announced a while ago it will be shutting down its Google Code service, so new home for some of the open-sourced tools should be found. That’s why I switched to GitHub and all the links in previous posts and software and tools page have been updated for their new location.
On top of that, I’m determined to continue sharing the code – my own and of some other developers, with their permission, of course. As I stated at the IIUG earlier this year, this is something we, the Informix community, should do to help Informix grow and become more accepted: share the knowledge, share the code – scripts, queries, tools we write and use. No matter how small or insignificant the code may be, there is always a novice out there who’ll find it useful.
With that regard, while migrating away from the Google Code, I was happy to see there were more than 2350 downloads of the ifmx-sql-editor binaries. Hopefully it is useful to somebody out there, as it is to me :-). Some new additions to it are on the way as well. Stay tuned.
The IIUG 2015 Conference in San Diego is getting very close. Next week, throughout the conference with over 80+ presentations, keynotes and other events, the IIUG will celebrate its 20th birthday! And following the “conference for users, by users” policy, I will present on some of the tools (mostly open-source) and techniques my team uses in a daily work with Informix. It will be a run-through different software, from scripts and SQL tools to application development and testing techniques we use in development, maintenance and support of big information systems. Though some of the stuff will certainly be familiar to a part of the audience, I hope everyone gets to hear and learn about something new.
Find the info about the conference and the schedule at www.iiug2015.org. For developers, it should be especially pleasing to see a number of developer-oriented topics – Java, Hibernate, web security, etc – just follow the D track.
See you at IIUG 2015!
Gartner guys reacted on a recent analyst report which stated that in 2015, the industry would begin retiring Sybase and Informix products. We’ve already seen so many such reports stating Informix is dead, or will be in the near future, that I’m used to ignoring all of them, but it’s nice to see Gartner investigate and state the opposite.
Here is the link to the article (first there is a part on Sybase, and Informix follows). What gives additional warmth to the heart, is the recognition of an IIUG as one of the important things when talking Informix. Kudos, Donald and Merv!
The big announcement in the world of Informix the other day was IBM signing the agreement with Chinese company General Data Technology or GBASE, which is, based on information on their website, a key software enterprise in the state planning. The base of the agreement (copy of the news is here) is that IBM shares the code of Informix, and GBASE will (in support of the China government’s national technology agenda) modify its security to conform to standards of Chinese government. That modified Informix will then be used in the future database projects.
So this is obviously big news for Informix, because it guarantees the expansion of the product to a fast growing market, but what does it exactly mean for us, non-IBMers involved in the Informix business?
Well, I’m looking at this in a good faith, so my personal thoughts are positive. This kind of agreement will result in bigger demand for Informix experts, both domestic and foreign. I have to admit that I have no idea about the state of affairs regarding Informix experts in China, but I presume it is definitely possible there will be a need for database designers, architects, and even bigger need for DBAs to maintain the big installations we all imagine when thinking of databases in China. So it’s quite possible some of us will find our careers continuing somewhere in east Asia or telecommuting for a local partner in China. Other than that, new DBAs should be properly trained, so that’s also another opportunity for all of us involved in teaching and training. This also means the growth of Informix community, and hopefully there will be more international community members springing out of these systems.
But most importantly, this means a long term survival of Informix as a product, which is of course in the best interest of all the Informix people. As Mr. Art Kagel said, this is the proof Informix is here to stay. And a little dream for the end, to share with you… would be nice to have this kind of commitment in other countries as well. Just saying.
I realized there is a number of books covering databases and data handling that I go through or am in touch with, but I never mention any of those or give any credit to authors, so I’m gonna change that starting today.
Recently I came across the book called Data Just Right by Michael Manoochehri. It is subtitled Introduction to Large-Scale Data & Analytics. Books with this kind of name could hide anything, quite often restraining themselves to one or two technologies, but this is not the case with this one. It is a review of a current state of data management and analytics, with a lot of sense for data management history and current needs and trends in this field. Reading this book won’t teach you how to use Hadoop, Pig, R or anything like it. It will give you the perspective of various technologies used today, show some examples and try to help you find the right tools for your needs.
What I found interesting about it is the broadness of technologies and ideas being covered. In the book, especially in the opening chapters, there are so many products, languages, tools, names, methodologies mentioned, that only a selected few of data experts could know about all of them. Codd, OLAP, NewSQL, BigQuery, SOX, Tableau, SciPy, to name just a few. For a book of only 200 pages, there is an index of more than a 1200 entries in it. So, in my humble opinion, this is why this book is worth going through – it gives a good perspective of data technologies to any kind of reader, data management novice, expert, CIO, CTO. In the same time, this is a burden for the book, because it will require some changes in the following editions to stay current in a fast changing data management and analytics landscape. This first edition is certainly worth reading.
More info about the book on its website: datajustright.com.